These principles are related to the training (training) and education, and is usuallyapplied to the formal classroom situation or to an on the job training (internship). Eachform of training should include as much as possible the nine principles below. So it is easy to remember (9 principles), the commonly used system mnemonics mnemonic orforeign terms, the RAMP 2 FAME.
A = Appropriateness
M = Motivation
P = Primacy
2 = 2 – Way Communication
F = Feedback
A = Active Learning
M = Multi – Sense Learning
E = Excercise
R : RECENCY.
Law of Recency show us that something is learned or received at the last moment is most remembered by attendees / participants. It shows two separate pengetian in education. First, with regard to the content (materials) at the end of the session and thesecond relates to something “fresh” in the minds of the participants. In the firstapplication, it is important for coaches to make a summary (summary) as often aspossible and be sure that key messages / core always emphasized again at the end of the session. In the second application, indicated to the coach to make a review of the plan (review) per section in each presentation.
Factors for consideration of recency
* Try to keep each session, given the relatively short term, no more than 20 minutes (if that’s possible).
* If the session more than 20 minutes, must often be summarized (recapitulated).More panjangsebaiknya session divided into sessions–sessions are shorter with somepauses so you can create a summary.
* The end of each session is an important. Make a summary / recap of the wholesession and put the emphasis on the messages or key points.
A: APPROPRIATENES (CONFORMITY)
Law of appropriatenes or suitability tells us that on the whole, be it training, information, tools used aids, case studies case studies, and other materials must be tailored to the needs of participants / participants. Participants will be easy to lose motivation if the coach fails to strive for material relevant to their needs. In addition, coaches must continually provide opportunities for participants to find out how the relationshipbetween new information with prior knowledge already obtained the participants, so thatwe can eliminate concerns about something that is vague or unknown.
* Coaches should clearly identify the need for participants to take part in the training.To the needs identified, the coach must make sure that sehala something related tosessions in accordance with those requirements.
* Use the description, examples or illustrations that are familiar (familiar) with the participants.
The law of motivation tells us that pastisipan / participants must have a desire to learn,he should be ready to learn, and must have a reason to learn. Coach found that ifparticipants have a strong motivation to learn or sense of desire to succeed, he will be better than others in the study. First of all because the motivation to create theenvironment (atmosphere) learning to be fun. If we fail to use the law of suitability(appropriateness) and neglecting to make relevant material, we‘ll be sure to miss the motivation of participants.
Factors to consider regarding motivation:
* Materials should be meaningful and valuable to the participants, not only forcoaches
* That should be motivated not only the participants but also the coach itself. For ifthe coach is not motivated, training may be of no interest and did not even reach the desired goal.
* As mentioned in the law of conformity (appropriateness), a trainer when necessaryto identify the needs of the participants why it comes to training. Coaches usually can create motivation by saying that this session can meet the needs of participants.
* Move from side to know to not know. Start the session with things or points that arefamiliar or unfamiliar to the participants. Slowly up and connect the points together so that each know where they are in the process of training.
P: PRIMACY (INTERESTING NOTE AT THE BEGINNING OF SESSION)
Law of Primacy tells us that the first things that the participants are usually studied, as well as a first impression or a series of information obtained from the coach really very important. For this reason, there is a good practice is to include all the key points at the beginning of the session. During the session running, developing key points and other information related. It is included in the Primacy of law is the fact that when participants were shown how to do something, they must be shown the correct way in the beginning. The reason for this is that it is sometimes very difficult to “teach” the participants at the time they make a mistake at the beginning of the exercise.
Factors to consider regarding Primacy:
* Once again, try sessions–sessions administered in a relatively short period of time.Preferably about 20 minutes as suggested in the law recency.
* The beginning of your session will be crucial. As you know that some manyparticipants will listen, and therefore make it interesting and give loads of informationimportant to them.
* Try to keep participants always “aware” of the direction and progress of the study.
* Assure participants will get things right the first time when you ask them to do something.
2: 2 – WAY COMMUNICATION.
Law of 2-way-communication or 2-way communication clearly emphasized that the training includes communication with participants, not at them. Various forms of presentation should use the principle of 2-way communication or feedback. This does not have to mean that the entire session must be a discussion, but which allows the interaction between the trainer / facilitator and participant / participants.
Factors for consideration of two-way communication: * Your body language is also associated with 2-way communication: you must be sure that it does not conflict with what you say.
* Plan your sessions should have interaction with whom it was designed, that is none other than the participants.
Law of feedback or feedback shows us, both facilitators and participants need information from each other. Facilitators need to know that the participants follow and keep paying attention to what was said, and instead participants also need feedback in accordance with the appearance / performance.
Reinforcement also need feedback. If we appreciate the participants (positive reinforcement) to do things right, we have a much greater chance for them to change their behavior as we want. Also wary that too much negative reinforcement will probably keep us obtain the response we expect.
Factors for consideration of the feedback:
* Participants must be tested (tested) on a regular basis for feedback to the facilitator
* At the time participants were tested, they should obtain feedback on their performance as soon as possible.
* The test may also include questions that are given regular facilitator of the group conditions
* All feedback is not necessarily positive, as many people believe. Positive feedback is only half of it and almost useless in the absence of negative feedback
* At the time of the participants did or said is true (eg, answering questions), call or announce it (in front of the group / other participant if that is possible).
* Prepare your presentation so that there is a positive reinforcement that is built up in the early session.
* Please note that participants really give positive feedback (done right) as well as to those who gave negative feedback (make a mistake).
A: ACTIVE LEARNING
Laws of active learning shows us that the participants studied harder when they are actively involved in the training process. Remember the adage that says “Learning While Working”? This is important in training adults. If you want to instruct the participants to write a report, do not just tell them how it should be made but provide an opportunity for them to do so. Another advantage of this is that adults are generally not used to sitting in a classroom all day, therefore the principle of active learning will help them to not saturate.
Factors for consideration of active learning:
* Use the exercises or practice for providing instruction
* Use a lot of questions for providing instruction
* A quick quiz can be used so that participants remain active
* If possible, let the participants do what is in the instructions
If the participant is allowed to sit for long periods without participating or given to these questions, chances are they will be sleepy / lose attention.
Law of multi-sense learning to say that learning to be much more effective if participants use more than one of the five senses. If you tell trainees about a new type of sandwich they’ll probably remember it. If you let them touch, smell and feel fine, there’s no way for them to forget it.Factors for consideration of multiple-sense learning:
* If you memberitah / say something to the participants, try to show a good
* Use as many senses of the participants if it is necessary as a means of learning them, but do not forget the target to be achieved
* When using a multiple-sense learning, you have to be sure that it is not difficult for the group to mendengarnyaa, see and touch whatever you want.
Factors for consideration in the exercise: * The more often trainee to repeat something, the more they remember the information provided
* By providing repetitive questions we improve training
* Participants must repeat the exercise itself, but the record does not include
* Summarize often as possible because it is another form of exercise. Make a summary of the current always concluding session
* Create a regular participant always remember what you have so far in the presentation sidajikan
* It is often said that without some form of exercise, the participants will forget 1/4 of what they learn in 6 hours, 1/3 in 24 hours, and about 9% in 6 weeks.
The principles of learning related to training and education. These principles are used in all sectors / areas, either in a classroom or apprenticeship system. These principles can be used to children and adolescents as well as to adults. Effective instruction should use as many of these principles, if not the whole of her. When you plan a session, see the entire draft to ensure that these principles have been used, and if not, it may need a revision (improvement).